1939: Conspiracy

On 23 August 1939, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed a secret protocol and agreement on the subdivision of Eastern Europe into spheres of influence. A week later, on 1 September 1939, with the commencement of the Second World War, Latvia declared its neutrality, but in October of 1939, the USSR threatened and pressured the Latvian government into signing an agreement that allowed the placement of Soviet military personnel and bases in Latvia. The war caused many economic difficulties.  Latvia admitted many Jewish refugees from Germany, Austria and other countries, and also, accepted military and civilian refugees from Poland.  At the same time, an estimated 90% of the Baltic German minority population left Latvia.  The USSR-Nazi Germany mutual friendship pact lasted for one-third of the Second World War and ended on 22 June 1941, with the Nazi German invasion of the USSR.